Solar energy map. Ontario, Quebec, Atlantic Canada.

Solar energy yield of optimized solar system in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia, Canada with a P95 exceedance probability. The maps represent the annual energy yield in kWh per kWp of a PV solar system installed on various mounting option: 2-axis (full) Tracker, Vertical Axis Tracker (VAT), and Fixed racking.

Values based on:

  • SUNY hourly satellite data from 2002 to 2008 with a 10 km x 10 km definition.
  • Panel inclination set for the best energy yield at each location, (contrary to other solar maps that calculate the yield with a panel tilt equal to the latitude , which is rarely the optimum)
  • Correction for ambient temperature and low irradiation (PV Modules are more efficient in low temperature and less efficient in low irradiation level).
  • 95% probability of exceedance (P95). i.e. there is 95% probability that the average solar energy yield over 25 years (the lifetime of the project) will exceed the level indicated on the map .


  • SUNY hourly data ±10%.  As we are using yearly P95 average, the error margin is likely less although some regions are underestimated (the blue rectangles in the map)   
  • Temperature: Suny does not provide ground temperature. The temperature is correlated with the closest weather station from CWEEDS. (see CWEEDS-based maps)
  • Standard deviation:  Calculated on 30+ years of data from CWEEDS .