Shading to sun rays from surrounding obstacles such as trees, building, structures, hills or mountains is often referred to as ‘far shading’.
The shaded area can be calculated from astronomical solar data.  The diagram below shows for a sample the shading length from trees on a particular site.

FarShadingGraph_da2a821b

Far shading may significantly reduces the PV system efficiency and must be avoided as much as possible.
The shading length is function of latitude, month, day, hour, and height of the obstacle and can be calculated with this tool created by EcoSmart.


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Other performance factors

  1. GHI to POA ratio
  2. Far shading
  3. Inter-shading
  4. IAM
  5. Soiling
  6. Snow
  7. Low irradiance
  8. Temperature
  9. Module quality
  10. Mismatch
  11. Inverter efficiency
  12. Power clipping
  13. Wiring
  14. Transformer
  15. Dispatch
  16. PID
  17. Light soaking
  18. Aging